April 1


Facts about IPS

The IPS is one of the All India Services, along with the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Forest Service. The officers of these services are deployed at both the Central and State levels.


The IPS is one of the most prestigious arms of the Indian Civil Services. The full form of the IPS is the Indian Police Service. This article will give details about the Indian Police Service.

Brief History of the IPS

The IPS had its origins during the British Raj, when the Indian Councils Act of 1861 was passed. It laid the foundation of a modern and professional police force in India. This police force was known as the Indian Imperial Police.

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In 1902-03, a commission was established under Sir Andrew Fraser and Lord Curzon with the objective of further reforming the Indian Imperial Police. The main recommendation was to appoint local Indians as officers. Previously, they could only reach the ranks of the senior N.C.O position, despite not being part of the Imperial Police.

It was in 1920 that the Indian Imperial Police was opened to Indians for the first time, for which an entrance service was carried out in India and England.

Before the independence of India, the senior police officers were appointed by the Secretary of State, based on the results of an entrance examination.

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The  Indian Police Service was established under the Indian Constitution via Article 312.

Quick Facts about the IPS

  • Despite being a small strength cadre, IPS officers have the highest count when it comes to the number of gallantry awards – Ashok Chakra, Kirti Chakra – awarded.


  • The Constitution of India clearly states that the police is a state subject. Hence, it is the responsibility of the state government to ensure that the IPS provides its services to communities that need them.


  • Although the standard uniform is Khaki in colour, State governments have the power to follow their own colour scheme as the police is a state subject.
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  • At times, IPS officers get deputed to UN missions. Those who serve with distinction have been conferred the United Nations Medal at times.


  • In India, there are only 125 police officers for every 100,000 people. This is one of the lowest police to population ratios in the world.


  • The IPS officers are recruited through the Civil Services. They are protected from State Police Services. The Indian Police Service is still governed by colonial law passed in 1861


  • IPS officers are appointed on the basis of either Civil Service Examination, or promoted from the state cadre officers. Vacancies in an IPS cadre are determined on the basis of the vacancy of a Superintendent of Police rank. Consequently, there are two levels of graduation for SP rank.
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  • An IPS officer can be tasked with leading and commanding intelligence agencies of India, such as the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation, among others.


Following the successful completion of the IPS Exam, the training of IPS officer recruits is conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy in Hyderabad.

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